Oct 26, 2014

groups and individuals

The concept of intelligence is ambiguous when action and learning occur simultaneously at several nested levels of a system ... [s]ince experimentation often benefits those who copy successes more than it does the experimenting organization, managerial illusions of control, risk taking, and playful experimentation may be more intelligent from the point of view of a community of organizations than from the point of view of organizations that experiment.
barbara levitt and james march, "organizational learning" p335.

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